The above picture shows the large heliosphere (in fading yellow) surrounding the small yellow sun from which the solar wind moves outward and opposes the galactic cosmic rays entering the
heliosphere and earth's atmosphere. The solar wind is very similar to cosmic rays in composition but is much weaker in intensity and is converse in direction. Voyager 1, in moving out through the termination schock to the heliopause
contacted galactic rays that had 40 times the pressure that the solar wind exerted.Voyager 1 also found that at the termination shock boundary, a large solar flare eruption caused a 30 % decrease in cosmic ray intensity. This illustrates the cause of
what is called the "Forbush decrease" of cosmic ray instensity caused, not by the 11 year cycle of sunspot numbers and solar flares but, by the much larger solar eruptions called coronal mass ejections (CME).
solar storms there is an increased magnetic field contained with these solar flares and more so by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the sun that sweep past the earth and sweep away a considerable amount of electromagnetic cosmic rays that would otherwise strike the earth. The decrease in cosmic rays described as a Forbush Decrease lasts only one or two weeks. The solar wind variation cycles approximately
every 11 years. Both of these phenomona affect the earths atmosphere and cloud cover. As the cosmic/galactic rays increase in intensity low cloud cover has been seen to increase. There is voluminous data of both phenomenon. And the data continues to increase from the National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA), the European Space Agency (ESA) and from other researchers around the world.
See a description of this phenomenon ( Called the Forbush decrease) by NASA at: Forbush
The graph below illustrates the Forbush Decrease phenomenon.
Illustration of the Forbush Decrease
The above two graphs summarize the correlation of solar flare frequency with the earth's northern hemisphere temperature variation over centuries. Although earth's temperature correlation with solar activity is undeniable, the causative effect of interaction between cosmic and solar radiation and low cloud formation has only recently become known as a the reason for the correlation.
The conclusion of the vast majority of scientists that are measuring solar and galactic cosmic radiaiont relative to the earth's temperature is in agreement with Lassen: "The 70-90 years oscillations in global mean temperature are correlated with corresponding oscillations in solar activity. Whereas the solar influence is obvious in the data from the last four centuries, signatures of human activity are not yet distinguishable in the observations."
K. Lassen, Danish Meteorological Institute, Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division,
Lyngbyvej,100, DK-2100 Copenhagen (2), Denmark
Length of Solar Cycle, K. Lassen, Science 253, 698-700; 1991
Our sun is an incredibly complex ball of gas. The surface of the sun is believed to be about 5,500 degrees C (10,000 F). The temperature of the sun’s core is thought to be more than 15 million deg. Kelvin.
This photo was taken in
2010 by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of NASA’s
Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Solar flares can be seen in this photo but it does not show the presence of the black sunspots that are visable in other photos such as the one below. The
black sunspots are relatively cooler areas apparently the result of heat loss by escaping mass of the respective solar flares.
This close-up of the sun from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft shows the massive sunspot AR1785 (center top), which is 11 times the size of Earth and facing our planet, as it appeared on July 9 2013. Several other smaller sunspots
are seen to the left of the major one, plus a group of smaller ones at left center of the photo. The frequency of sunspots has been found to be inversley correlated with galactic cosmic rays which is a major controlling factor of low cloud cover and hence
NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captured this image of an M7.9 class flare on March 13, 2012 at 1:29 p.m. EDT. It is shown here in the 131 Angstrom wavelength, a wavelength particularly good for seeing solar flares and a wavelength that is typically colorized in teal. The flare peaked at 1:41 p.m. EDT. It was from the same active region, No. 1429, that produced flares and coronal mass ejections the entire week. The region has been moving across
the face of the sun since March 2, and will soon rotate out of Earth view.
A solar flare is an intense burst of radiation coming from the release of magnetic energy associated with sunspots. Flares are our solar system’s largest explosive events.
They are seen as bright areas on the sun and last from mere minutes to several hours.
Scientists classify solar flares according to their x-ray brightness. There are 3 categories: X-, M- and C-class. X-class flares are the largest of these events. M-class
flares are medium-sized; they can cause brief radio blackouts that affect Earth's polar regions. Compared to X- and M-class, C-class flares are small with few noticeable consequences on Earth.
Image Credit: NASA/SDO
Errors in the models for man made global warming philosophy.
Scientists who measure and study the climate, ocean temperature, polar ice caps and cloud cover have consistent, long
term evidence that the average earth temperature has been changing for thousands of years. It goes through cycles. Short term cycles average about 11 years. Long term cycles last centuries.
these cycles, together with data 'that shows a correlation of climate with Solar activity, the scientific view is that there is little that man is or can do about global temperature. In 2008 there were 30,000 scientists that signed a petition affirming
their opposition to the philosophy of man made global warming.
Yet there are those who support the anthropomorphic source and the media would have you believe that there is only one opinion - that climate is man made.
Errors in the anthropogenic global warming model are significant:
1. Solar flares or sunspot frequencies have been observed over several
centuries showing that the small variations in the measured earth surface temperature is very closely correlated with the frequency of solar flares or sunspots.
Further, in recent decades data shows that climate fluctuations do
not correlate with industrial greenhouse gasses. See:
• Evidence on Solar Forcing of Climate Change; Sallie Baliunas - Harvard Smithsonian
for Astrophysics. Testimony to U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natrual
resources. 24 May 1997, 24 refs.
• Global Warming and Ozone Hole Controversies; Frdereick seitz
- George C. Marshall
Institute, Wn D.C. 1994. 19 refs.
• The Role of the Sun in Climate Change, Book by Douglas V. Hoyt and Kenneth H.
Oxford Univ. Press, 1997
• Global Warming: The Truth Behind the Myth. - Book by Michael L. Parsons, Insight
2. The oceans provide a major buffereing effect of the the energy from the sun entering the earths atmosphere. The ocean provides 70.8 % of the earths surface at 165,200,000
square Km. Any slight increase what ever in the surficial earth temperature increases the rate of water water evaporation from 165 million square kilometers of water.
This results in:
---- An energy consuming process which in itself moderates climate change.
---- Causes increased cloud cover (see the NASA earth photo of cloud cover below).
---- This increases the snowfall at the North and South polls. Evaluations at the south pole - estimated to have over 90 % of the earths freshwater ice mass - (National
Snow & Ice Data Center.org) has data showing decreased temperatures in studies over the last 50 years rather than increased temperature. See:
• Helen Fricker & Richard Bromwich;
Science; 16 Feb. 2007. Helen Fricker from the UC
San Diego Scripps Inst. Of Oceanography. Richard Bromwich from Ohio State Univ.
Byrd Polar Research Center.
3. The effect of cloud cover is not included in models used by proponents of man made global warming and hence the models conclusions are absent of one of the biggest interferences
of heat transfer between the sun and the earth and vice versa. The cloud cover actually has a cooling effect stronger than the models predict for warming. The average cloud cover from NASA data is istimated at 70% of the earths surface. The variation in low cloud cover is strongly affected as generated by cosmic ray ion collision with atmospheric gases which become the nucleus for water droplet formation. (As reported by Marsh and Svensmark of
the Danish Space Research Institute.)
• Also see: Does the Earth Have an Adaptive Infrared Iris? Richard Lindzen (of MIT ) et al, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. Vol 82. 417-432, March 2001.
4. The greenhouse effect is the main factor of the global warming model. It consists of the idea that greenhouse gasses, principally carbon dioxide, forms a type of
a shield around the earth. Then the theory is that since the ultraviolet rays from the sun are converted to infra red rays by the earth and the greenhouse gasses then trap or reflect these rays back to the earth in much greater proportion than they are
emitted to the outer atmosphere. Thus the greehouse gases wouldl cause an ever increasing rise in global temperature. (Search “Greenhouse effect” in wikipedia )
The errors in this concept are:
One: that infrared rays being of longer wavelength, have much less energy than ultraviolet rays by orders of
magnitude, so that energy contributions from captured indirect infrared radiation by the atmosphere would not be contributory compared to direct UV radiation from the sun. Add to this the problem that the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration
is too low to have an effect as shown in item three below. The median UV radiation energy per photon mole is about 8.5 electron volts while the median infrared radiation energy is about 0.041 electron volts.
Two: Gases do not selectively direct energy or light rays one way or the other. Gases distribute themselves uniformly within a confined system and do not have any inherent intelligence to guide energy rays predominantly in any given direction.
entering the atmosphere would be uniformly emitted both outward and inward.
Three: Greenhouses gases are less than 0.05% of the total gases or about 3.5 parts per
10,000. Nitrogen being
78.1 %; Oxygen, 20.9 %; Argon 0.93 % ; Even if there were a doubling
of CO2 in the atmosphere it would have negligible change on radiation.